Environmental Systems Engineering

Introducing: Environmental Systems Engineering
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Furthermore, the infrastructure systems are interdependent—consider the impact of electricity disruptions on water supply—and they effectively depend on and have profound effects on the natural environment. Planning, designing and managing civil and environmental systems in light of these complexities and future uncertainty, especially due to climate change, requires the use of sophisticated analytical tools, including recent advances in smart system technology. In addition, effective analysis and decision making support require economic and policy analysis. Systems engineering harnesses these methods to create an integrated understanding of and superior solutions for these challenging problems.

It is recommended that students take courses on methods such as economics, data mining and optimization and technologies such as smart cities , as well as domain specific courses such as intelligent transportation systems, smart buildings, water resource systems, environmental systems, smart sensing, climate change adaptation, sustainability. Visit the HUB for a full listing of available courses and their descriptions. The following interdisciplinary courses relate to this concentration and may be of interest for additional course work, depending on your academic and career goals.

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is broadly concerned with the planning and management of water, air, and land resources. All of these decisions are ultimately based on an understanding of how the. Why did we create the Environmental Systems Engineering B.S. degree? A number of students at Stanford are interested in careers where they will be able to.

HQ, hazardous quotient. Abstract Perfluorooctanoic acid PFOA is an emerging contaminant of concern due to its toxicity for human health and ecosystems. However, successful degradation of PFOA in aqueous solutions with a cost-effective method remains a challenge, especially for groundwater. In this study, the degradation of PFOA [ Perfluorooctanoic acid PFOA is an emerging contaminant of concern due to its toxicity for human health and ecosystems.

In this study, the degradation of PFOA using activated persulfate under mild conditions was investigated. Contrary to the traditional alkaline-activated persulfate oxidation, it was found that PFOA can be effectively degraded using activated persulfate under acidic conditions, with the degradation kinetics following the pseudo-first-order decay model. Higher temperature, higher persulfate dosage and increased reaction time generally result in higher PFOA degradation efficiency.

Experimental results show that a PFOA degradation efficiency of The corresponding defluorination ratio under these conditions was The decarboxylation and HF elimination processes would repeat and eventually lead to the complete mineralization all PFCAs. Abstract Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases.

Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. Two typical terrestrial species wheat, Bainong AK58 ; maize, Zhengdan were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues.

The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues.

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Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil. CK represents the control group. Abstract Agricultural soil is typically an important component of urban ecosystems, contributing directly or indirectly to the general quality of human life.

To understand which factors influence metal accumulation in agricultural soils in urban ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. Land use, soil type and [ Agricultural soil is typically an important component of urban ecosystems, contributing directly or indirectly to the general quality of human life. Land use, soil type and urbanization indicators all account for considerable differences in metal accumulation in agricultural soils, and the interactions between these factors on metal concentrations were also examined. Results showed that Zn, Cu, and Cd concentrations varied significantly among different land use types.

Concentrations of all metals, except for Cd, were higher in calcareous cinnamon soil than in fluvo-aquic soil. Expansion distance and road density were adopted as urbanization indicators, and distance from the urban center was significantly negatively correlated with concentrations of Hg, and negatively correlated with concentrations of Zn, and road density was positively correlated with Cd concentrations.

Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that Hg concentration was significantly influenced by the four-way interaction among all factors. The results in this study provide basic data to support the management of agricultural soils and to help policy makers to plan ahead in Beijing. The process of the treatment of oil refinery wastewater with multiple micro-electrolysis conforms to the third-order reaction kinetics. The gas chromatography—mass spectrometry GC—MS used to analyze the organic compounds of the oil refinery wastewater before and after treatment and the Ultraviolet—visible spectroscopy UV—VIS absorption spectrum analyzed the degradation process of organic compounds in oil refinery wastewater.

Abstract In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code EFDC was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban [ In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code EFDC was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of COD Cr and NH 3 N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed.

Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter.

In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well. Babatunde 1.

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Box , Safat , Kuwait. Abstract This study investigated the mechanism and key factors influencing concurrent phosphorus P recovery and energy generation in microbial fuel cells MFC during wastewater treatment. Using a mediator-less dual chamber microbial fuel cell operated for days; P was shown to precipitate as struvite [ This study investigated the mechanism and key factors influencing concurrent phosphorus P recovery and energy generation in microbial fuel cells MFC during wastewater treatment.

Using a mediator-less dual chamber microbial fuel cell operated for days; P was shown to precipitate as struvite when ammonium and magnesium chloride solutions were added to the cathode chamber. More importantly, COD and aeration flow rate were shown to be the key influencing factors for the P recovery and energy generation. However, the energy generated at maximum P recovery was not the optimum; this shows that whilst P recovery and energy generation can be concurrently achieved in a microbial fuel cell, neither can be at the optimal value.

Abstract Rapid population increase coupled with urbanization and industrialization has resulted in shortages of water in the Middle East. This situation is further exacerbated by global climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions. Recent research advocates that solutions to the global water security and [ Rapid population increase coupled with urbanization and industrialization has resulted in shortages of water in the Middle East. Recent research advocates that solutions to the global water security and scarcity crisis must involve water—energy nexus approaches.

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This means adopting policies and strategies that harmonize these inter-related sectors to minimize environmental impact while maximizing human benefit. Based upon this review work, some recommendations are made for designers and policy makers alike to bolster the nexus approach that Abu Dhabi is pursuing.

Abstract A phenol-degrading bacterium strain PA was successfully isolated from the effluent of petrochemical wastewater. Based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the strain PA was characterized as a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, nonmotile and short rod-shaped bacterium that utilizes phenol as a sole [ A phenol-degrading bacterium strain PA was successfully isolated from the effluent of petrochemical wastewater. Based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the strain PA was characterized as a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, nonmotile and short rod-shaped bacterium that utilizes phenol as a sole carbon and energy source.

The strain was efficient in removing These results indicated that A. The scale bar represents 0. Abstract Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of [ Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage.

This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the soil-crop system under different conditions, the study shows that there are no significant differences in the heavy metal content when the quantity of reclaimed water for irrigation varies.

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Reclaimed water for short-term irrigation does not cause pollution to either the soil environment or the crops. Nor will it cause the accumulation of heavy metals, and the index for the heavy metal content is far below the critical value of the national standard, which indicates that the vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water during their growth turn out to be free of pollutants. The heavy metals brought into the soil by reclaimed water are less than that taken away by the crops.

The input and output quantities have only small effects on the heavy metal balance in the soil. This paper provides a reference for the evaluation and safety control of irrigation with reclaimed water. Abstract Discharging phosphate through wastewaters into waterways poses a danger to the natural environment due to the serious risks of eutrophication and health of aquatic organisms.

However, this phosphate, if economically recovered, can partly overcome the anticipated future scarcity of phosphorus P resulting from [ Discharging phosphate through wastewaters into waterways poses a danger to the natural environment due to the serious risks of eutrophication and health of aquatic organisms. However, this phosphate, if economically recovered, can partly overcome the anticipated future scarcity of phosphorus P resulting from exhaustion of natural phosphate rock reserves.

An experiment was conducted to determine the efficiency of removing phosphate from a membrane bioreactor effluent pH 7. The data satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of The adsorbed phosphate was quantitatively desorbed by leaching the column with 0.

The desorbed phosphate was recovered as struvite when ammonium and magnesium were added at the molar ratio of phosphate, ammonium and magnesium of at pH 9. Phosphate was also recovered from the desorbed solution as hydroxyapatite precipitate by adding calcium hydroxide to the solution at a phosphate to calcium molar ratio of at pH 7.

The P contents of struvite and hydroxyapatite produced were close to those of the respective commercial phosphate fertilisers.

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Abstract This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The [ This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment.

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The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics PAH in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation.

Charlesworth 2 , Joseba R.

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Bayon 3 and Frank Warwick 4. Abstract Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems SuDS constitute an alternative to conventional drainage when managing stormwater in cities, reducing the impact of urbanization by decreasing the amount of runoff generated by a rainfall event. This paper shows the potential benefits of installing different types of [ Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems SuDS constitute an alternative to conventional drainage when managing stormwater in cities, reducing the impact of urbanization by decreasing the amount of runoff generated by a rainfall event.

This paper shows the potential benefits of installing different types of SuDS in preventing flooding in comparison with the common urban drainage strategies consisting of sewer networks of manholes and pipes. The impact of these systems on urban water was studied using Geographic Information Systems GIS , which are useful tools when both delineating catchments and parameterizing the elements that define a stormwater drainage system.

Taking these GIS-based data as inputs, a series of rainfall—runoff simulations were run in a real catchment located in the city of Donostia Northern Spain using stormwater computer models, in order to compare the flow rates and depths produced by a design storm before and after installing SuDS. The proposed methodology overcomes the lack of precision found in former GIS-based stormwater approaches when dealing with the modeling of highly urbanized catchments, while the results demonstrated the usefulness of these systems in reducing the volume of water generated after a rainfall event and their ability to prevent localized flooding and surcharges along the sewer network.

Inflow hydrographs of the originally flooded nodes, before and after installing SuDS. Abstract Size- and time-dependent aerodynamic behaviors of indoor particles, including PM 1. In-situ real-time measurements were taken using an optical particle counter. The filtration characteristics [ Size- and time-dependent aerodynamic behaviors of indoor particles, including PM 1.

The filtration characteristics of filter media, including single-pass efficiency, volume and effectiveness, were evaluated and analyzed. The electret filter EE medium shows better initial removal efficiency than the high efficiency HE medium in the 0. The resistance curve rose slightly before the efficiency reached the bottom, and then increased almost exponentially. The single-pass efficiency of portable air cleaner PAC with the pre-filter PR or the active carbon granule filter CF was relatively poor.

The enhancement of PR with HE and electret filters augmented the single-pass efficiency, but lessened the airflow rate and effectiveness.

Without regard to the lifetime, the electret filters performed better with respect to resource saving and purification improvement. A most penetrating particle size range MPPS: 0.